With the proceeding of offshore oil exploration and development from shallow water to deepwater, the risk of oil spill accident in oil drilling increases. High attention should be paid to the oil spill disaster, either from the viewpoint of environmental pollution or from economic losses. We introduce the research and application status of oil spill monitoring technology and effluent oil treatment. On one hand, domestic oil spill monitoring technology is studied from the principle and method of the spectral and remote sensing monitoring technologies. On the other hand, the effluent oil processing technology after the oil spill is studied. After comprehensive investigation, the methods are classified into mechanical and chemical ones and introduced separately.