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    Research Progress and Challenges of Ship Ballast Water Treatment
    ZHANG Weidong, DU Bin, QU Huifang, LI Tao
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (4): 1-10.  
    Abstract213)      PDF(pc) (3948KB)(212)       Save
    Ship ballast water is one of the main ways for the alien invasion. It is considered as one of the four threats to the marine environment. The ballast water convention established to solve this problem has stipulated the standards for ballast water treatment, which has entered into force on September 6,2019. This paper reviews the background and social needs of the research on ballast water treatment technology, analyzes the characteristics of different ballast water treatment technologies, introduces the latest achievements of the research on ballast water treatment technology in the academic community, and the efforts of the industrial community in the research and development of ballast water treatment systems, and discusses the challenges faced by ballast water treatment at different levels of standards, economy, technology, testing and law.
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    Overview of the Development of Expendable Conductivity Temperature and Depth
    DU Libin, CUI Yongchao, LIU Jie, ZHANG Xiaobo
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 33-40.  
    Abstract166)      PDF(pc) (1757KB)(457)       Save

    Expendable Conductivity Temperature and Depth (XCTD) is an advanced marine dynamic environmental element measuring instrument, which can be used on various civil and military vessels, aircraft or submarines to quickly obtain underwater environmental information data. It is a standing instrument for marine survey and an important supplement to traditional measuring instruments such as marine environmental monitoring buoy, submarine buoy and shipborne CTD because of its flexibility, economy and simplicity. At present, the Expendable Conductivity Temperature and Depth is widely used in the field of ocean profile observation because of its characteristics of simple measurement, high measurement efficiency and low hardware cost. In order to understand the development gap at home and abroad and clarify the future development direction of this field, this paper expounds the development status of the expendable marine exploration instruments at home and abroad through comparative analysis and summary starting from its classification, at the same time, compares the main gap between domestic and foreign products, and focuses on the working principle and key technology of the Submarine-launched Expendable Conductivity Temperature and Depth (SSXCTD), meanwhile, the research summarized the future research directions in this field.

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    Numerical Analysis and Risk Study of Large Offshore Converter Station Transportation and Floatover Installation

    Xiong Gen, Liang Fusheng, Li Xin, Sun Zhenzhou, Xu Xin, Tian Xinliang,
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 1-12.  
    Abstract142)      PDF(pc) (8344KB)(271)       Save
    With the development trend of large-scale and ocean-going offshore wind farms, the demand for large-scale offshore converter stations will continue to increase, and their installation problems will gradually receive attention. In this paper, taking the SanXia Rudong offshore converter station as an example, a multi-body dynamic model is established by OrcaFlex software to numerically calculate the transportation and floatover installation process of the converter station, and the motion, acceleration and mooring line force of the barge and converter station in some stages are analyzed. The results show that during the transportation stage, when the significant wave height is the same, the motion amplitude and acceleration of the barge-converter station system increase correspondingly with the increase of the spectral peak period Tp (6~9s), but they are basically within the limit value. During the installation stage, the spectral peak period Tp = 8s at the same wave height will cause greater surge, sway, and yaw motion amplitudes than Tp = 6s and 10s, and more attention should be paid to such working conditions. In addition, head sea conditions are more conducive to the floatover operation. Besides, the risk research of the converter station transportation stage is carried out, and effective risk control measures are proposed to provide a certain reference for the actual large-scale offshore converter station installation operation.

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    Processing of Beidou Positioning Error in the Integrated Navigation for Use At Sea

    Wang Yafeng, Huang Peishuo, , Yu Xiaqiong, Song Lei, Yu Wenbin
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 76-82.  
    Abstract127)      PDF(pc) (1558KB)(162)       Save

    Taking the SINS/Beidou loose integrated navigation as the object, the processing method of Beidou positioning error at sea is studied. By analyzing the source of Beidou positioning error, it is pointed out that there is a constant deviation of Beidou positioning error in local areas within a short time. This constant deviation can be compensated by the differential data released by the ground differential stations. However, at this stage, the ground differential stations of Beidou system are mainly concentrated in the key areas of China. For overseas areas, especially marine areas, where there is no ground differential station, the common method is to treat the Beidou positioning error as noise, but this method will sacrifice the accuracy of integrated navigation. In this paper, the constant deviation of Beidou positioning is incorporated into the filter state. And the Kalman filter state expansion method is proposed to estimate this constant deviation to improve the integrated navigation accuracy. Finally, the simulation examples show that the method can effectively improve the positioning accuracy.

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    Discussion on the Procedure of Oil Flushing in Complex Pipelines

    Dong Lei, Liang Tengfei
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 48-51.  
    Abstract122)      PDF(pc) (3136KB)(133)       Save
    Oil flushing, also known as oil cleaning, is a common process in the construction of offshore platforms. In particular, the hydraulic system has a high requirement for pipeline cleanliness, and usually the pipeline has many branches. So it is difficult to divide the oil flushing package into single line circuits, and the oil flushing quality of each branch cannot be guaranteed. This paper builds models according to parameters of the pipeline system, proposes to analyze the feasibility of the procedure using fluid software simulation before oil flushing operation. Adjusts the oil temperature, kinematic viscosity, flow control and other aspects, and then optimizes the oil flushing procedure to ensure the quality and improve efficiency.
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    Overview of deepwater umbilical pre-commissioning
    JIANG Bingbing, CAO JuHang, ZHANG Jie, GAO Lei, LONG Xiaopin, TANG Yu, LUO Jie, Li Jian, CHEN Juan, ZHANG Jie
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 13-23.  
    Abstract118)      PDF(pc) (11950KB)(57)       Save

    Umbilical is an important link between the upper control system and the subsea production facility. This paper systematically summarizes the conventional pre-commissioning technology of umbilical and key testing equipment & instruments, which is helpful to promote the research & development of relevant supporting equipment and improve the domestic technical service capacity of deepwater umbilical pre-commissioning. Based on the practice of a gas field in the South China Sea, a simple, integrated and flexible umbilical testing process is proposed, which provides technical support for the subsequent deepwater umbilical pre-commissioning. Two different types of subsea precommissioning equipment for deepwater umbilical are compared and analyzed: the deck testing equipment represented by intervention, workover and control system and the subsea testing equipment represented by the subsea booster module. The limitation of the deepwater umbilical pre-commissioning technology based on the test system of subsea booster module is analyzed, and the future development direction of its is proposed. Finally, its broad application prospect is pointed out.

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    Application of Ship 3D-modeling based on NURBS surface

    ZHANG Dapeng, YAN Jin, ZHAO Bowen, HOU Ling, ZHU Keqiang
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 24-32.  
    Abstract117)      PDF(pc) (7786KB)(368)       Save

    NUBRS surface modeling technology is specially designed for the reconstruction of 3D models of complex surface objects. It can accurately and precisely express the contour and shape of the 3D model of target objects based on the form of curves and surfaces. This paper introduces Maxsurf Modeler, a 3D modeling program of hull based on NURBS surface, and gives the process of applying this program to 3D modeling of hull. At the same time, the reliability and applicability of the 3D model are verified by CFD. In the calculation of hydrostatic resistance, the maximum error under 6 working conditions is 2.29%. In seakeeping calculation, the calculation error of pitch motion is the largest, which is 19.32%. The results show that the 3D model completed by Maxsurf Modeler has certain reliability.

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    Commissioning of Subsea Production System based on a Gas Field in the South China Sea
    JIANG Bingbing, CHEN Juan, HONG Longfei, DENG Chiyu, LONG Xiaopin, CAO Juhang, HU Yunhai
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (4): 11-15.  
    Abstract113)      PDF(pc) (870KB)(71)       Save
    The subsea production system is the key equipment for the deepwater oil and gas development, which comprises of surface control equipment and subseainstalled production equipment. In order to ensure that the surface control equipment is able to monitor and control the subseainstalled production system during normal production and shut down, the production system where required after the subsea production system is installed offshore, the commissioning work needs to be completed prior to putting into production. Based on the subsea production system of a gas field in the South China Sea, this paper briefly addresses the subsea production control system, discusses the purpose, content and procedure of the subsea production system commissioning in detail. The research will help to break technological monopoly of American and European countries in the commissioning of subsea production system and independently develop the offshore oil and gas in our country.
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    The Current State of Chemical Injection Metering Valve Technology

    Wu Lu, Sun Qin, An Weizheng, Zuo Xin, Bai Xiaobo, Yue Yuanlong
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 99-108.  
    Abstract110)      PDF(pc) (10473KB)(101)       Save
    Subsea chemical injection metering valve is the core chemical injection equipment to ensure the long-term safe operation of the subsea production system and realize the functions of accurate injection and flow metering. In this paper relevant standards for the function and technical requirements of subsea chemical injection are introduced, Then, the subsea chemical injection process is proposed, the installation position and function of subsea chemical injection metering valve are pointed out. Finally, considering the international mainstream subsea chemical injection metering valves, operation principle, power supply and communication, mechanical structure and subsea installation are analyzed. This research can provide somewhat significance for the independent development of our subsea chemical injection metering valve. 
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     Current Situation and Development Trend of Unmanned Platform Technology in Offshore Oilfield
    SUI Xianfu, QIU Hao, ZHANG Fu, ZHOU Chao, WANG Juanyan
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (4): 111-116.  
    Abstract107)      PDF(pc) (2530KB)(58)       Save
    With the development of offshore oil field, the cost of production and operation is increasing rapidly.Unmanned platform technology has been widely concerned in recent years because of its simple structure, less equipment and low production and operation cost. However, the unmanned platform mode also exposes the problems of high cost of workover operation, difficulty of boarding the platform and difficulty of equipment monitoring in the process of production and operation. The author systematically summarizes the experience of unmanned platform development by investigating the advanced technologies and excellent practices in the current unmanned platform development process, which aims to provide a reference for the further promotion and application of unmanned platform technology.
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    Life Prediction of Glass Fiber Reinforced Vinyl Ester Composites Under Seawater Corrosive Environment
    LI Xiang, LIU Xiao, LI Sen, LIU Chengcheng, LIU Xiaobin, GAO Shuang
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (4): 107-110.  
    Abstract99)      PDF(pc) (1277KB)(42)       Save
    Fiber reinforced plastics shields are used in the development of offshore oil and gas fields in the South China Sea to protect critical facilities in underwater production systems. Fiberglass (FRP) is the most commonly used composite material, widely used in Marine and ocean engineering fields. By establishing the seawater corrosion resistance life model and defining the bending strength retention rate, the general equation of seawater corrosion resistance life and the seawater corrosion resistance life formula under deepsea low temperature conditions are obtained. Based on the flexural strength test results of longterm immersion in seawater at room temperature and high temperature, from the point of view of bending strength, corrosion resistance is short. it is predicted that the corrosion resistance life of glass fiber reinforced vinyl ester composites in the seawater temperature range of 0-4℃ is about 12.28-16.55 years for applications subject to low bending loads.
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    Research on integration lifting technology of J-tube of offshore booster station jacket

    FENG Yinglei
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 57-64.  
    Abstract98)      PDF(pc) (11685KB)(85)       Save

    As offshore wind power gradually moves towards the deep sea, the size and weight of offshore booster station jackets are also getting larger. The number of cable protectors of the offshore booster station jackets is large, making installation difficult. If use the installation method of traditional oil and gas jacket’s J-tube, the project duration and cranes will be greatly affected. This paper discusses an integration lifting technology of J-tube and structural piece,which lifts the J-tube and structure in place at the same time, and checks the structural strength and local strength of lifting points under different working conditions. Provide technical basis for construction of wind power technology to break through in deep sea areas.

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    Analysis of the Reason of Corrosion and Prevention Measures for 316L Stainless Steel Pipeline
    BI Hangming
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (4): 30-35.  
    Abstract96)      PDF(pc) (5312KB)(80)       Save
    The corrosion of stainless steel piping for a precommissioning offshore platform in the South China Sea is sampled and analyzed. The conclusion obtained from the test is that the chloride ion content exceeds the standard leading to serious corrosion of stainless steel pipelines. This paper explores the basic principles of damage caused by chloride ions to 316L stainless steel pipeline. From the perspective of offshore platform pipeline construction, for how to effectively prevent corrosion of stainless steel pipelines, we put forward relevant recommendations, and provide reference for subsequent offshore platform construction projects.
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    Research on Vibration Suppression of New Barge Floating Wind Turbine by TMD in the Platform
    JIANG Kun, CAI Qingqing, LI Sunwei
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (4): 122-129.  
    Abstract94)      PDF(pc) (1461KB)(61)       Save
    Barge-type floating wind turbine is an important equipment for the development of offshore wind power, and its motion response can be effectively suppressed by a passive control device tuned mass damper (tuned mass damper, TMD). Based on the ITI Energy Barge wind turbine, this study designs a new Barge floating wind turbine foundation, establishes a wind turbine dynamic model configured with TMD in the platform, configures TMDs with different positions, masses, and damping parameters in the floating platform, and studies the change of the motion response of the floating wind turbine before and after the TMD with optimal parameters configured on the wind turbine platform under the action of wind and wave loads. The results show that after the TMD with a mass ratio of 3% and a damping ratio of 6% is configured on the top of the buoy in the new wind turbine platform, the front and rear and left and right displacements of the top of the wind turbine tower are reduced by 15.56% and 44.93% respectively. The pitch and roll suppression rate of the platform reaches 22.97% and 62.79%. The front and rear and left and right bending moments of the fan tower base are reduced by 15.62% and 39.8% respectively. At this time, the control effect of TMD is the best, and the overall stability of the wind turbine is greatly improved.
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    Application of Big Platform Twin hole-in-Monobore Technology in Offshore Bohai Oilfield

    QI Hengzhi
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 109-112.  
    Abstract87)      PDF(pc) (5244KB)(82)       Save

    Design and development of Penglai oilfield two period 40 slots (16 dual bore slots) wellhead platform can drill 56 wells. By far, it is the most number of Bohai offshore drilling platform. On the basis of slots and Christmas tree surface layout, considering the design of directional well and the anti-collision problem, this paper describes the installation of the surface casing and cementing procedure. The 56 wells slots drilled from a 40 slot WHP reduces the number and cost of the platform while providing additional wells to meet the reservoir development plan. Thus it plays a guiding role of the development of subsequent oilfield.

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    Study on Ideal Superstructure Design of Ship
    LIAO Shiyang, LIU Jun, ZENG Wenyuan
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (4): 16-23.  
    Abstract87)      PDF(pc) (6248KB)(94)       Save
    The ideal superstructure means that the superstructure does not bend when the hull is bent, and the normal stress of the superstructure is consistent in the direction of height. Different from the strong superstructure and the light superstructure, the stress level of the ideal superstructure is close to the main deck, which can maximize the utilization of material strength. In this paper, a typical oil tanker is taken as the research object. Based on the composite beam method, considering the influence of shear hysteresis effect, the design method of ideal superstructure is discussed. According to the section characteristics of superstructure, the length of ideal superstructure is explored. Based on the theoretical formula of the ideal superstructure, the design length of the ideal superstructure is obtained according to the parameters of the transverse section of the ship. After the theoretical design scheme of the ideal superstructure is obtained, the stress distribution law of the deck of the ideal superstructure is verified by the finite element method. The verification results show that the normal stress level of the superstructure is close to the main deck, which can provide reference for the design of the early ideal superstructure. Finally, the deck thickness of the superstructure is adjusted to save materials and reduce the center of gravity.
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    Strength Design Criterion on Hydrogen Offshore Pipeline

    WANG Meng, LIANG Guangqiang
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 41-47.  
    Abstract83)      PDF(pc) (1547KB)(229)       Save
    The design criterions of strength, fracture toughness and hydrogen fatigue crack growth rate of hydrogen offshore pipeline have been studied, and the sensitivity of the FCGR’s model was also studied. This paper can provides a guidance for the engineering design of hydrogen submarine pipeline.
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    Marine lifting optimization of separated lifting topsides of eight legs central production platform #br#

    LAN Guoyang, YUAN Yujie, HU Xingtao, SUN Huafeng
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 113-117.  
    Abstract82)      PDF(pc) (2903KB)(76)       Save
    This article has a successfully put into operation example of a separated lifting topsides of eight legs central production platform in Bohai sea。 According to the idea of integrated design, in the detailed design phase through the marine lifting optimization of separated lifting topsides of eight legs central production platform, it not only reduces the occupation of key production resources such as large floating cranes and the input of labor costs, but also by shortening the offshore construction time to reduce the uncertainty risk of offshore construction. In addition, the redundancy of the structure can be effectively used to achieve the optimization of the structure and achieve the purpose of reducing cost and increasing efficiency. Through the analysis and demonstration of professional computing technology, this article proves the feasibility of this optimization scheme
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    Key techniques and applications of high-speed drilling in Huangyan District Y1 oil and gas field

    Xu Jia, Yuan Zeming, Zhang Haishan, Zuo Honggang, Wang Xijie
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 52-56.  
    Abstract81)      PDF(pc) (1394KB)(114)       Save
    The target layer of the Y1 oil and gas field  is deeply buried, with a large dip angle and a typical low porosity and permeability reservoir, there are some difficult problems, such as difficult to release Rop in surface layer, prominent problem of borehole instability in middle and upper layer, poor drill ability in deep layer, low local formation loss pressure and high risk of loss during cementing in long open hole section, etc. , the drilling speed and efficiency of the gas field are restricted. To this end, the corresponding comprehensive technical research, through the analysis of the gas field during the operation of the technical difficulties encountered, and the East China Sea has a mature drilling technology system, key Technologies, such as casing program simplification, oil-based mud system, personalized PDC bit design, and optimized BHA, have been developed to speed up drilling operations in deep and ultra-deep wells in the Y1 oil and gas field, the technical problems which restrict drilling speed and efficiency are solved, and the technical guidance is provided for the scale development of the gas field.
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    Analysis of the Installation and Test Scheme of Marine Environment Monitoring System for Semi-Submersible Platform
    JIA Chuang, HE Xiaoyong, HUANG Jun, WANG Tingting
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2023, 10 (3): 118-124.  
    Abstract81)      PDF(pc) (7169KB)(54)       Save

    With the development of offshore oil and gas resources moving towards the deep sea, there are more and more floating production facilities being used. In order to be able to monitor the production facilities under complex marine environmental conditions, the integrated marine monitoring system is adopted by most floating production facilities. This system can monitor the location and attitude of facilities, structural stress, mooring system, etc., which are essential for platform structure status conduction, safety assessment and response and remaining life prediction. The marine environment monitoring system is an important component of the whole system, which can monitor the marine environmental conditions around the floating facilities in real time and provide data support for ballast adjustment and mooring adjustment of floating facilities. The installation and test of the monitoring system is a prerequisite for the realization of the system functions. Through the detailed analysis of the application conditions and functions of the system, this paper gives the layout and installation scheme of hardware equipment, as well as the test scheme of software and hardware, which can be a useful reference for the installation and test of the marine environment monitoring system of the floating production facilities.

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