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    Subsea Pipeline Span Analysis Based on Fatigue Life
    Xiu-feng LI, Xian-hong FENG
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (3): 196-200.  
    Abstract643)   HTML2)    PDF (2536KB)(538)      

    Traditionally, span analysis determines the maximum allowable free span length based on the condition that no vortex induced vibration (VIV) will happen and the assumption of strength ultimate limit state (ULS). The cost of span mitigation rises rapidly with the increase of water depth. Free span analysis based on fatigue life could remarkably increase the maximum allowable span length and cut the engineering cost. We present the free span analysis method and criteria for subsea pipeline. Based on the engineering project which is the first time to use fatigue limit for pipeline design, the free span analysis is conducted by fatigue limit state (FLS) and finite element method, and the results minimize the number of span mitigation.

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    Taut Mooring System Design and Analysis of Octagon FDPSO
    Qiang SUN, Qing-hui DONG, Gui-sheng PENG, Tian TIAN, Bin XIE, Shi-sheng WANG, Xi-chong YU, Jing-rui ZHAO
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (3): 175-183.  
    Abstract260)   HTML4)    PDF (2706KB)(395)      

    The existing mooring systems are compared and analyzed with the consideration of vessel shape, environmental condition and design cases. Average-distributed taut mooring system is finally selected for the octagon floating drilling, production, storage and off loading system (FDPSO) in the South China Sea. According to the requirements of station keeping and line forces, an averaged-distributed taut mooring system is designed based on the environmental condition at the depth of 2 000 m in the South China Sea. Compared with the traditional catenary mooring system designed for the same FDPSO, the averaged-distributed taut mooring system reduces the mooring system self-weight and the mooring radius on seabed. In addition, the offset of FDPSO with one mooring line damaged can be efficiently managed under 100-year environmental condition. The proposed mooring system can meet the requirements of octagon FDPSO. Furthermore, the research results will offer references for the mooring design of similar floating structures.

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    Subsea Christmas Tree Tubing Hanger Installation by Simplified Landing String
    Ning ZHANG, Jia-you MAO, Jian-jun YANG
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (3): 145-151.  
    Abstract438)   HTML349)    PDF (6463KB)(394)      

    The simplified landing string is introduced to Liuhua 4-1 Field for the installation of subsea Christmas tree (XT) tubing hanger, considering the low pressure in reservoir and absence of shallow gas. After demonstrating the feasibility of the simplified landing string system, the main equipment of this system is introduced, including the simplified landing string, umbilical system, tubing hanger running tool and tubing hanger. Then the control factors and restriction conditions are represented, followed by the detailed description of installation steps. Finally, a comparison is made between the application of conventional landing string and simplified landing string. The results can offer a reference for the exploitation of marginal subsea fields.

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    Global Response Analysis for the Deep-Sea Umbilical
    Xi-qia CHEN, Lei-jian SONG, Xia-ying DU, Jun WAN, Shi-xiao FU
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (2): 111-117.  
    Abstract234)   HTML0)    PDF (3900KB)(362)      

    We present the global analysis for the deep-sea umbilical. The design and analysis of the umbilical has become the research focus in the offshore engineering field. Global response analysis is the key issue in the research of umbilical. We present the theoretical models of the free hanging catenary shape and the lazy-wave shape at first. Based on the theoretical models, the umbilical models of the free hanging catenary shape and lazy-wave shape are then developed in OrcaFlex. The distribution characteristics of effective tension and bending curvature are calculated and compared. The results show that the shape of the lazy-wave is more complex than that of the free hanging catenary. However, the lazy-wave shape can reduce the effective tension at the top hanging points and dynamic response at the touchdown point, which makes it more applicable in the deep sea. Meanwhile, the sensitivity analysis of the generalized configuration parameters, including the length of the buoyancy catenary, the buoyancy factor and the starting location of the buoyancy catenary, is performed and the effect of the configuration parameters on the static characteristics of the umbilical is studied. The research results may provide a reference for the configuration design of the deep-sea umbilical.

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    Study on the Pilot Plant’s Capacity of Floating Liquefied Natural Gas Processed by Propane Pre-Cooling and Dual-Nitrogen-Expansion Sub-Cooling
    Miao-er LIU, En-dao LI, Quan-sen YIN, Xiao-liang TAI
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (3): 152-156.  
    Abstract248)   HTML8)    PDF (915KB)(325)      

    Based on the propane pre-cooling and dual-nitrogen-expansion sub-cooling (C3-DN2) process used for floating liquefied natural gas production, storage and offloading unit (LNG-FPSO), a pilot unit will be built to test the rationality of process configuration and key control modes, and to study the operability and flexibility of its application in offshore cases. In order to define the capacity, the pilot unit should keep the consistency of process configurations and key control modes, and the similarity of moving and flow regime with LNG-FPSO. The factors affecting the capacity of the pilot unit are further investigated, and the results show that the type of key equipment to keep the consistency of key control mode greatly impacts the capacity, and the other factors have less influence. Among the main devices, the refrigerant compressor should be considered the most carefully when defining the capacity of the pilot unit, and others such as cold box, driver, turbine expander and the heat exchanger for C3 are less important. Therefore, it is better to select the same type of refrigerant compressor in the pilot as that in the LNG-FPSO, and to design two plate-fin heat exchangers in parallel in the cold box.

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    Research on Assembly Process of All Slewing Floating Crane
    Yang BAI, Zhi-lin GAO, Zheng-quan XUE
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 55-59.  
    Abstract195)   HTML0)    PDF (1579KB)(312)      

    Offshore oil development project relies on floating crane. On "HYSY201" deepwater pipe-laying crane vessel, the 4000 t all slewing floating crane is designed according to European standards. Its building and assembly are precision, difficult and complex, and the assembly quality directly affects the performance of the floating crane. The key technologies including assembly procedure, precision measurement, virtual assembly, tooling design, and lifting are introduced in detail. The general assembly process for such floating cranes are discussed.

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    Deluge System Optimization Design for Offshore Oil and Gas Production Facility
    Jin-hong XIE, Jin LI, Yan-hua LI, Jiao-lin ZHU
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (2): 128-132.  
    Abstract162)   HTML1)    PDF (2023KB)(306)      

    Deluge system is an important system on offshore oil and gas production facility. The design of deluge system is related with other offshore system design such as electric system and general layout design. Nozzle type selection and deluge distribution piping routing have much more impact on the fire water system design. We put forward an optimization method from the theoretical to the actual engineering design aspects. This method can decrease the water demand as much as possible and save the engineering cost on the premise of meeting the requirements of safety and standards.

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    Optimization in the Control Modes for Propane Compressor in C3/MRC Liquefaction Process
    Hong-yu PAN, Shun-li LI, Yu-xing LI, Jian-lu ZHU
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (3): 157-162.  
    Abstract222)   HTML11)    PDF (2376KB)(300)      

    The flexibility of three reflux modes including overall reflux, gradual reflux and last stage reflux for propane compressor in C3/MRC liquefaction process is simulated respectively by dynamic simulation, on which basis high pressure control and low pressure control are added, respectively. In this way, the influence on liquefaction process and the response speed of the controller by changing the settings of controller can be analyzed. It is indicated that the high pressure control of gradual reflux can meet the demand of better stability and faster response in liquefaction process.

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    Application of Subsea Structure Scouring Incipient Assessment Based on FLUENT in Indonesia Subsea Pipeline Project
    Zi-peng ZHOU, Wen-jun ZHONG, Mei-zhen ZHOU, Guo-min SUN, Le-qin WANG, Chun-hong HU
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 45-49.  
    Abstract258)   HTML0)    PDF (1106KB)(295)      

    Many subsea pipelines have been failed during their service period caused by scouring of pipeline support structure. When a submarine pipeline or submarine structure is laid on a sediment bed, and is subject to a current, the pressure difference between the upstream and the downstream of the pipeline or the structure may induce a scour underneath the pipe and submarine structure. According to this problem, the subsea pipeline support structure scouring assessment is studied to forecast the scouring occurrence. Firstly, the sediment incipient velocity is calculated based on scouring theoretical analysis, and then a two-dimensional geometry model is built in FLUENT software, and the actual seabed current velocity is obtained based on numerical simulation by FLUENT software. Through the comparison between these two velocities, the scouring occurrence could be assessed. This method is validated in Indonesia subsea pipeline project.

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    Thermal Load Analysis on 6S50ME-B Piston Crown
    Jian TIAN
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (2): 118-123.  
    Abstract163)   HTML0)    PDF (2714KB)(290)      

    The low speed two-stroke marine diesel engine is developing continuously towards long stroke, high pressure, high automation, high intelligence, low consumption and low emission. MAN Company designs new ME-B type diesel engine to meet these requirements. Piston crown are one of the most important components of the engine and thermal load analysis is always the focus of research. ME-B piston crown is modified significantly in structure and dimension compared with old design. Finite element analysis is carried out for piston crown of the latest 6S50ME-B diesel engine by using ANSYS software. The three-dimensional model of piston crown is established and the temperature field is obtained. Using the temperature field as the boundary conditions, the thermal stress field and the weak point on the piston crown are found, which may offer theoretical support for further optimization.

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    Parameter Research on the Contact Load of the Over-Bend of Flexible Pipe During Laying
    Hai-bin YE, Jian-feng YUE, Yong-biao YE, Qian-jin YUE, Jin-long CHEN
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (3): 184-188.  
    Abstract160)   HTML2)    PDF (4785KB)(281)      

    The over-bend of the flexible pipe will be subjected to obvious contact load during horizontal laying and failure may occur because of crushing. This usually restricts the application of horizontal laying in deep water. Therefore, it is significant to accurately estimate the contact load on the over-bend of the flexible pipe during laying. We carry out theoretical research on the over-bend contact load, deduce a simplified calculation formula, and investigate the key parameters which affect the contact load in the laying cases by numerical simulation. The results can offer a specific guidance for the over-bend contact load analysis in flexible pipe laying, and provide a reference for the laying design as well.

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    Subsea Pipeline Appendage Finite Element Analysis and Comparison of Different Checking Criteria
    Jie ZHANG, Guo-min SUW, Hong-qi MA, Guo-yang LAN
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (2): 93-98.  
    Abstract422)   HTML0)    PDF (2594KB)(273)      

    Subsea pipeline system consists of pipelines, risers, spools and appendages. For pipelines and risers, special softwares is used for analysis and design; for the appendages, common finite element analysis (FEA) software is used. We use the ANSYS software to do the analysis for appendages. Considering the real load of the appendages, FEA model is built, and the stress distribution is obtained. According to DNV-OS-F101 code and ASME Ⅷ Div2 code, stress checking is carried out to estimate if the appendages can meet the requirements and ensure the safe operation. Besides, the comparison between the two checking criteria can provide a reference for future projects.

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    Multiaxial Fatigue Assessment of Pile Leg Joint under Complex Stress State
    Ying-fang LIU, Hong-feng LIU, Fu-hong JIANG, Li-zhong SAN, Yan-feng WANG, Wan-xiong XU
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (2): 75-79.  
    Abstract224)   HTML0)    PDF (2388KB)(271)      

    A new multiaxial fatigue criterion is introduced. In combination with the hot spot stress method, it is used to estimate the fatigue life of about 250 test specimens published in international open literature, through which the accuracy of the new method is verified. Finally we use the new method to do a successful fatigue life assessment of the pile leg joint. This research provides an available reference to improve the accuracy of the fatigue life prediction of pile leg joint.

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    Influence of Soil Liquefaction and Strength Degradation to Subsea Production System Foundation Under Seismically Induced Cyclic Shear Stress
    YIN Han-jun, GU Yong-wei
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2018, 5 (2): 125-128.   DOI: 10.12087/oeet.2095-7297.2018.02.09
    Abstract354)      PDF (2167KB)(270)      
    With the subsea production system applied more and more widely in China deepwater oil and gas fields, various kinds of extreme conditions are analyzed and applied in the subsea design. Subsea production system design in China is still in the initial stage. When seismic influence is analyzed and designed, equivalent loads are imposed merely for calculating the bearing capacity and safety, which cannot analyze the impact of seismic load to soil foundation. Aiming at this problem, the soil liquefaction and the settlement induced by strength degradation under seismically induced cyclic shear stress are analyzed. From the calculation result of a subsea project, it can be seen that analysis on soil liquefaction and strength degradation has important significance.
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    Research on Polymer Flooding Equipment Arrangement of SZ 36-1 Oilfield
    Zhi-sheng DU, Jin-jin XU, Chao MA, Fa ZHANG
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (3): 163-167.  
    Abstract412)   HTML5)    PDF (2235KB)(266)      

    Polymer flooding has been applied to offshore platform for more than 10 years. Polymer flooding technology has been very mature by now. However, there are still some problems in polymer flooding equipment planning and compatibility for production equipment etc. According to the development of SZ 36-1 Oilfield polymer flooding project, we propose different equipment arrangement plans for varied scales of polymer flooding, including the schemes for increasing the deck area, and put forward the optimization directions of polymer flooding equipment arrangement.

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    UPS Sizing Calculation for Offshore Platform
    Zhi-gui GUO, Xiao-hua YAO
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (3): 201-204.  
    Abstract320)   HTML1)    PDF (964KB)(263)      

    Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a key device in the electrical system on the offshore oil platform. It supplies the key loads such as the communication equipment, instrument control, electric protection, and control panels or workstation for the key machines when the normal and the emergency power supplies both fail. We deal with the calculating method for sizing of UPS and perform engineering calculation on the UPS sizing of a certain offshore platform. It is proved that the calculating method is simple and convenient, and can be used for the electrical design of other offshore oil platforms.

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    Comparative Experimental Study on Severe Slugging Characteristics in Different Riser Shapes
    Jing YE, Lie-jin GUO, Sen-lin CHEN, Qing-ping LI, Nai-liang LI
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 18-22.  
    Abstract281)   HTML0)    PDF (2016KB)(257)      

    The characteristics of severe slugging flow in two types of riser systems are studied, including occurrence region, pressure fluctuations at riser base, cycle time, and liquid slug length. The flow pattern map in S-shaped flexible riser is compared with the classical severe slugging flow transition criteria. The experimental results show that the severe slugging cycles are similar in two types of risers. However, there is a second growth on the pressure fluctuations in the S-shaped riser compared with the vertical riser. The period duration in the S-shaped riser is longer, but the liquid slug length is shorter. The occurrence region of severe slugging flow in the S-shaped riser is smaller than that in the vertical riser.

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    Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Artificial Diffusion Terms on Two-Fluid Model
    Peng-fei HAN, Lie-jin GUO, Qing-ping LI, Hai-yuan YAO, Bing CHENG
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 23-27.  
    Abstract123)   HTML0)    PDF (1452KB)(255)      

    When artificial diffusion terms are introduced in two-fluid model, the effects of different artificial diffusion coefficients are studied. For vertical pipe Water Faucet problem, when the artificial diffusion coefficients are gradually increased, nonphysical oscillations can be eliminated. For horizontal pipe flow in ill-posed region, the calculated results without diffusion terms agree with experimental data but the mesh independent solution cannot be obtained. When the coefficients calibrated in Water Faucet problem are adopted, hydrodynamic instability is suppressed to some extent and slug frequency is underestimated. Therefore, the amount of artificial diffusion varies with different flow conditions and should be determined specially.

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    Development of 20 m Seafloor Core Sampling Drill
    Bu-yan WAN, Yong-ping JIN, Xiao-jun HUANG
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 1-5.  
    Abstract172)   HTML0)    PDF (2436KB)(255)      

    Seafloor core sampling drill is necessary equipment for marine geologic and environmental investigation. A 20 m seafloor core sampling drill is chosen as the study object. Its technical features and at-sea operation are described from the aspects of supporting and leveling mechanism technology, drill string making and breaking, drill rods storage technology, telemetry/telecontrol and high-speed data communication technology, as well as escape technology.

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    Review of Single-Point Mooring System of FPSO
    Jian-hui XIE, Liao-quan YANG
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2014, 1 (3): 189-194.  
    Abstract281)   HTML0)    PDF (3207KB)(254)      

    We summarize the single-point mooring systems of floating production storage and offloading system (FPSO). The review covers catenary anchor leg mooring system, single anchor leg mooring, soft yoke mooring system, external turret mooring system, and internal turret mooring system. In the end, the application prospects of FPSO for domestic deepwater oil and gas resources development are given.

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    Interference Analysis of Top Tensioned Risers for Tension Leg Platform under Wave and Current
    Yun SHI, Xiao-dong ZHOU, Jing CAO, Xiao-yan LIU
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (2): 84-87.  
    Abstract290)   HTML0)    PDF (998KB)(248)      

    Tension leg platform (TLP) has been widely used in deepwater oil field development in recent years. The risk of top tensioned riser (TTR) interference increases with the increase of water depth. If the collision force or collision energy caused by riser interference is large enough, it is possible to endanger the integrity of riser systems, and even the safety of the platform. TTR interference assessment becomes increasingly important and a design challenge for deepwater TLP. Reasonable well-bay spacing should be selected to avoid TTR collision and also minimize the impact on TLP topsides. Based on an oil field development plan, well-bay spacing and riser interference are investigated. The key parameters such as drag coefficient and top tension factor are discussed, and sensitivity analysis is carried out on those factors. The results may provide references for the research and design of TTRs.

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    Research on Materials Management Digital System of Offshore Platform
    Shu-min LI, Tai-an HUANG, Bao-rui YIN, Xiao-gang ZHANG, Jia WANG, Xiao-fang LIU, Yu-ming LI
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (2): 138-144.  
    Abstract196)   HTML0)    PDF (4526KB)(243)      

    Considering the low materials management efficiency and a serious shortage of informatization level in domestic offshore engineering enterprises, the significance of materials management is emphasized through the analysis of domestic and foreign advanced materials management theory. Taking the actual project of a company as the background, business demand for materials management is drawn through field investigation, and the structure of the management system is figured out based on the demand analysis. The structural modelling of the system is thus accomplished. Using Java language, combined with MyEclipse development environment and Oracle database, we develop a prototype system. The feasibility and validity of the system are testified through the demonstration of the actual project material management process.

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    Design and Application of SDH Fiber Optic Network for Offshore Oil and Gas Field
    Jin-hong XIE, Xiao-peng LI, Jian-mei GAO
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (3): 209-214.  
    Abstract133)   HTML1)    PDF (1404KB)(240)      

    As the growing needs of data transmission rate and reliability in oil field production, synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) fiber optic network is applied to offshore oil fields. We introduce such a new fiber optic network technology from two aspects, i.e., network structure and self-healing ring network, and frame structure and transmission rate. The design method, optical fiber design and design of optical terminal equipment are analyzed using the CFD11 project as an example. Through the successful application in the project, we draw a conclusion that the SDH technology is completely applicable to offshore oil and gas fields.

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    Bonded Hose in CALM System
    Meng WANG, Jie ZHANG
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 40-44.  
    Abstract214)   HTML0)    PDF (1637KB)(240)      

    Bonded hose is the important equipment for oil transportation in catenary anchor leg mooring (CALM) system. Bonded hose is made of elastomer with additional layer such as textile layer impregnated with rubber, steel wire, etc. to improve the axial tensile and bending strength of the hose. There is little research on the bonded hose for offshore oil and gas field in China so far. We present the research on two types of bonded hoses in CALM system: floating hose and marine hose. The investigations on structure and length selection and configuration of two types of hoses are carried out. A design approach for structure selection and configuration determination is proposed. Taking marine hose as an example, the static and dynamic analysis is presented.

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    Design of Low-Power Platform for Deepwater Riser Underwater Monitoring
    Hao BAI, Meng-na ZHANG, Xiao-hong SHEN, Hai-yan WANG
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (2): 133-137.  
    Abstract245)   HTML0)    PDF (2950KB)(239)      

    Underwater information processing platform is the nerve center of the riser fatigue monitoring device. It controls fatigue parameters detection, signal processing, data transmission, dormancy and initiation of the monitoring equipment and a series of processes. The hardware system of the low-power-consumption underwater information processing platform consists of low-power microprocessor, high-speed digital signal processor (DSP), a variety of sensors, signal modulation and transmission circuit, power supply and other accessories and so on. In order to improve the service period of the monitoring equipment, we optimize the design of the low-power underwater information processing platform during the "Eleventh Five-Year" period. We add storage modules and optimize spatial layout and program flow to greatly reduce the circuit board area. After optimization, the reliability of the underwater information processing platform is enhanced further. And then the volume and weight of the riser monitoring system are reduced and its convenience and applicability are improved.

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    Optimization Design of Tubing Hanger Outlet Angle of Horizontal Tree
    Rui QIN, Qing-ping LI, Xiao-lan LUO, Meng-lan DUAN
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 50-54.  
    Abstract279)   HTML0)    PDF (2666KB)(238)      

    Aiming at the engineering problem of flow loss, an optimization design method of tubing hanger outlet is proposed on the basis of drag coefficient method, which considers the structural characteristics of tubing hanger, as well as the position and function of tubing hanger. By using the FLUENT software, a finite element model for tubing hanger is developed and the fluid flow in the tubing hanger is simulated. The results obtained by the drag coefficient method and the numerical results show that the best tubing hanger outlet angle is between 11° and 12°.

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    Study on Global Strength of the New Floating Drilling, Production, Storage and Offloading Structure
    Jing ZHAO, Lei LIU, Fu-hong JIANG, Zhi-gang YANG, Bin XIE, Shi-sheng WANG, Xi-chong YU, Jing-rui ZHAO
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 6-6.  
    Abstract142)   HTML0)    PDF (3395KB)(233)      

    Nowadays, the deep water in China is in the early developing stage, and it adapts for floating drilling, production, storage and offloading structure (FDPSO), which integrates the functions of drilling, production and storage. FDPSO can reduce much expense for early development of oil field. In this paper, a new-style eight-square FDPSO is studied. Based on the complex environment in deep water and the load cases, the global structure model is built. According to the three-dimensional potential flow theory and spectra-based analysis method, the wave loads are calculated and design wave parameters are decided. By transferring the design wave loads to global structure model, the structure stress is obtained. The calculation results can provide theoretical reference for the design of FDPSO working in the oil fields of deep water.

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    Research on Subsea Production Equipment Testing Technology
    LIU Pei-lin, JU Peng-peng, SU Feng, JIANG Ying
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2018, 5 (2): 121-124.   DOI: 10.12087/oeet.2095-7297.2018.02.08
    Abstract240)      PDF (2828KB)(227)      
    With the development of deepwater oil and gas fields, subsea production system is playing a more and more important role. With the limit of water depth and transport distance, subsea production system is operated by automatic control system with umbilical. Various tests are needed during manufacturing, transportation, installation and pre-commissioning in order to keep the reliability of control system. Based on some subsea production projects in the South China Sea, brief introduction is given for the unit test, factory acceptance test (FAT), interface test, integration test and pre-commissioning of the subsea equipment including Christmas tree and subsea manifold. This research could offer reference for other similar projects.
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    CO2 Storage Scenario for Dongfang Gas Field Terminal
    Zhi-jun LI, Xi-chong YU, Yu-xing LI, Qing WANG, Bing CHENG
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (2): 105-110.  
    Abstract173)   HTML0)    PDF (3704KB)(225)      

    The available CO2 volume in Dongfang gas reservoir is rather abundant, which brings an important problem, that is, how to bury the CO2 to realize CO2 emission reduction. According to the specific situation of Dongfang gas field terminal, four schemes to recycle CO2 are proposed, including burying on site onshore or offshore and injecting in Weizhou oil field or Bohai oil field for enhancing oil recovery (EOR). On that basis, four utilization programs, all of which include treatment, liquefaction, transportation and burying of CO2, are put forward. Finally, process calculation, apparatus selection and economic analysis are developed for every scheme. Results show that the first scheme (onshore local storage near Dongfang gas field terminal) possesses the least investment, but no profit. The fourth scheme [EOR/enhancing gas recovery (EOR/EGR) in Bohai Gulf] takes the largest investment. The investment of the second scheme (EGR in Dongfang 1-1 gas field) is less than that of the third scheme (EGR/EOR in Weizhou 12-1 platform). EGR/EOR can always get profit. The optimum scheme should be determined by economic evaluation.

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    Development Status and Prospects of Remotely Operated Vehicles
    LIAN Lian, WEI Zhao-yu, TAO Jun, REN Ping, MA Xia-fei
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2018, 5 (4): 223-231.   DOI: 10.12087/oeet.2095-7297.2018.04.01
    Abstract567)      PDF (3209KB)(225)      
    Human beings cannot explore and exploit the deep ocean resources without the help of submersibles. Among all kinds of submersibles, the remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) have been widely deployed since they have strong working ability and are free from power constraints. In this work, we first present and summarize the definition, basic classification, system composition, developing history and status, application demanding and national strategic importance for the ROVs. Then, some key technologies for the current design and development of ROVs are presented and discussed. Finally, some possible developing directions and the characteristics of the future ROVs are summarized, which can be referenced to develop and design the new generation ROVs.
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    Analysis of Main Factors Affecting Fracturing Effect in Low Permeability Reservoir of Xihu Oil and Gas Field
    Shun-shui LI, San-xi LI
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (2): 80-83.  
    Abstract159)   HTML0)    PDF (755KB)(221)      

    Hydraulic fracturing has found more and more applications in low permeability reservoir of Xihu oil and gas field in recent years. It is of great guiding significance to the selection of well and layer for fracturing and fracturing design to study the main factors affecting the fracturing result in low permeability reservoir in offshore oil field. We analyze such factors through gray correlation method and fuzzy curve method. The results show that the main factors affecting the fracturing result in the test areas are well testing permeability, skin factor, geological reserves, sanding strength, porosity, and effective thickness. The two analysis methods lead to slightly different ranking results of the affecting factors, but with the same overall trend. Therefore, the main factors affecting the fracturing effect can be identified in this way.

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    Study on Repair Methods for Deepwater Pipeline
    Chao MA, Kun SUN, Ye-zhou HUANG, Xiao-dong CHEN, Shou-yang SUN
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (3): 168-174.  
    Abstract151)   HTML5)    PDF (15760KB)(221)      

    The special environment conditions of oil and gas fields near Liwan 3-1 are introduced with their adverse effects on pipelines, and three damage scenarios of deepwater pipeline for repairing damaged pipeline are listed. According to the damage scenarios, methods for repairing damaged pipeline in deep water are summarized with repair procedure and equipment, and those methods are compared. Finally, the application possibility of all methods for pipeline repair in deepwater field is analyzed. It is concluded that repair with bolted clamp or connector can be main repair methods for deepwater pipelines in China.

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    Technology and Application of Offshore Lifting for Large-Diameter and Ultra-Long Anchor Pile
    Yong-biao YE, Feng GAO, Xing ZHANG, Wen-zhi FU, Hai-bin YE
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 60-63.  
    Abstract234)   HTML0)    PDF (1955KB)(221)      

    Offshore anchor pile is very common in offshore structures such as jacket platform, offshore wind turbine platform and single point mooring system, etc. The installation of anchor pile has significant effect on the cost and process for the whole engineering, in which the lifting is the most important procedure in the offshore operation because it has a great demand for the crane capacity of the vessel. When the anchor pile is too long for the crane to lift vertically, underwater horizontal upending is required in the operation. We elaborate the scheme of underwater horizontal upending for the large-diameter and ultra-long anchor pile offshore lifting and discuss the key technical difficult points. An engineering example of anchor pile installation of single point mooring system in South China Sea is given, through which the reliability of underwater horizontal upending scheme is introduced and validated. This program provides new ideas and approaches for large-diameter and ultra-long anchor pile offshore installation.

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    Thermal Expansion of Deep-Sea Pipeline with Inline Manifold
    Xiu-feng LI, Xian-hong FENG, Dang ZHAO
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 28-31.  
    Abstract223)   HTML0)    PDF (1152KB)(221)      

    In wet development of deep water oil and gas, subsea pipeline is connected to subsea wells or manifold by jumpers at the middle or the ends. The temperature profile of pipeline with inline manifold is discontinuous, and like that of two pipelines connected together. Finite element analysis can accurately predict the expansion displacement, but the analysis is complex and time consuming. Based on an actual project, using analytical method, we develop an in-house work sheet to calculate the displacements of pipeline with inline manifold and discontinuous temperature profile. The calculation method has been verified by finite element analysis and reviewed by a third party. The method is applicable to engineering projects.

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    Study on Failure Mechanism and Countermeasures of Two-Way Shock Absorber in Ocean Drilling
    Jia-lin TIAN, Chuan-hong FU, Ming-jian DONG, Zheng-lian LIU, Xiao-kang LONG, Jian FANG, Chun-ming WU
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (2): 99-104.  
    Abstract147)   HTML0)    PDF (2270KB)(220)      

    In view of the deficiencies in the study of two-way shock absorber in marine oil and gas drilling and its abnormal failure, the failure mechanism is analyzed based on the structural principle of two-way shock absorber and field use. On the basis of the analysis, a series of feasible measures are established. The results show that the main causes leading to two-way shock absorber's failure include seal failure, thread failure, loosening between spindle and outer cylinder, and the design defects of nine-thread. Accordingly, avoiding artificial damage, preventing seal failure, strengthening supervision of all positions and improving the nine-thread structure are reasonable choices to avoid shock absorber failure. The conclusions are helpful to effectively reduce the risk of shock absorber failure and the failure probability, which are of great significance to improving production speed and drilling safety.

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    Analysis of Influence Factors for Pigging Effectiveness of Bypass Pig in Natural Gas Liquid Pipelines
    Hai-yuan YAO, Qing-ping LI, Bing CHENG, Shao-kai CHEN, Yong-fei LIU
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 32-35.  
    Abstract160)   HTML0)    PDF (2370KB)(219)      

    There exist many problems such as high pigging velocity and long pigging slug in the pigging process in natural gas liquid pipelines by using traditional pig. In order to solve these problems, bypass pigging technology has been developed. To analyze relevant factors in the design and application of bypass pig, a subsea pipeline pigging model is built by using OLGA software (version 7.2) and the factors including bypass ratio of the bypass pig, pipe diameter, gas liquid ratio, pig weight etc. have been analyzed, which can provide reference for the design and application of bypass pig.

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    Simulation Study on Power Line Carrier Communication Design for Subsea Production Control System
    Shu-bin WANG, Ying LIU, Hai-liang CAO, Long-chuan GUO, Jue WANG, Chun-li ZHU, Jia TIAN
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 64-71.  
    Abstract323)   HTML0)    PDF (2546KB)(214)      

    The normal operation of subsea production control system is closely linked to the safety and reliability of communication system. Power line carrier communication (PLC) model is established with the concept of lumped parameter, and the RLGC measured data of an underwater gas field of the South China Sea is introduced into the system. The OrCAD Capture software is used for simulation. Attenuation curves of different transmission paths are obtained. Finally, through limiting the bit error rate, the attainable transmission rate is calculated. In this way, a new method is provided for the communication design of subsea production system.

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    Risk Evaluation Research of Subsea Oil and Gas Pipeline Stability
    Zi-peng ZHOU, Guo-min SUN, Ning HE
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2014, 1 (3): 195-199.  
    Abstract169)   HTML1)    PDF (814KB)(209)      

    Pipeline stability is an important parameter of subsea pipeline service. In order to ensure the safe operation of the subsea oil and gas pipeline, so as to a chieve the safe production and sustainable development of subsea oil and gas field, risk evaluation of the subsea pipeline is required. research the technical methodology of subsea pipeline stability risk evaluation based on the worldwide standard and engineering experience. Firstly, four objects are described regarding to the risk evaluation, i.e., risk recognition, result evaluation, frequency analysis and risk matrix. Then the risk condition and evaluation methodology of subsea oil and gas pipeline stability are researched. Finally, the risk factors of subsea oil and gas pipeline stability are summarized based on the particularity of subsea pipeline. The semiquantitative evaluation method and qualitative evaluation method are used for subsea oil and gas pipeline stability risk evaluation. The results can be used for improving the accuracy of oil and gas pipeline risk assessment and promoting the related technical progress in.

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    Study on Application of Subsea Production System to Marginal Offshore Gas Field Development
    JIANG Ying, WANG Chang-tao, ZHANG Fei
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2018, 5 (2): 80-85.   DOI: 10.12087/oeet.2095-7297.2018.02.01
    Abstract326)      PDF (3339KB)(209)      
    Subsea production system has a broad application prospect in marginal offshore gas field development since its advantages in economy and efficiency, as well as its flexible development modes. Subsea production system and its common modes are introduced based on the summary of common development methods and their restrictions for marginal gas field development. The applicability of subsea production system in marginal gas field development is discussed. And a case study of development mode comparison and selection is conducted for marginal gas field development via subsea production system.
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    Several Well Completion Technologies for Deepwater Gas Field
    Zheng TIAN, Ji-hua YE, Zheng-li LIU, Jun-feng LUO, Chun-jie ZHANG, Hao JIN
    Ocean Engineering Equipment and Technology    2015, 2 (1): 12-17.  
    Abstract149)   HTML0)    PDF (1695KB)(206)      

    With the development of offshore oil exploitation into the deepwater region, we encounter a series of difficulties and challenges in practice in the South China Sea during deepwater operation. The severe natural environment puts forward higher technology standards and requirements on deepwater well completion. In the aspects of well completion tools, equipment, construction technology and strategy, there exists obvious difference between deepwater tasks and shallow water or land operations. According to the characteristics of deepwater operation, some difficulties and key technologies are analyzed. The completion sand control, perforating technology, and fracturing filling technology are studied separately. In the deepwater well completion practice in South China Sea, the possible risk points and technical solutions are summarized. The results can provide reference for the subsequent design and operation.

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