Table of Content

    28 May 2024, Volume 11 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
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    Research on Optimization Strategy of Attack Angle for Wind-assisted Ship Propulsion with Minimum Route Deviation
    LIN Haoan, CHEN Li
    2024, 11 (1):  1-9. 
    Abstract ( 17 )   PDF (5657KB) ( 13 )  
    The decision on wind sail angle is crucial for effectively harnessing wind energy in windassisted ships. During ship navigation, the wind sail generates both thrust and lateral thrust, causing ship yawing and reduced energy efficiency. To address this problem, this paper introduced a lateral thrust weight factor and established a bilinear angle decision function composed of the thrust coefficient and the lateral thrust coefficient. The function aimed to minimize the deviation angle of the optimal course and utilized the particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve for the optimal weight factor applicable to the specific route. This approach enables achieving optimal sail angles under different relative wind directions, allowing for windassisted ship navigation without relying on steering and avoiding course deviation. Compared to the traditional angle strategy based on the maximum thrust method, the proposed approach results in slight improvement in heading longitudinal displacement within the same navigation time, substantial reduction in sideways displacement and course deviation angle, and smoother angle variations during fluctuations in relative wind direction. These findings are beneficial for wind sail manipulation. This research provides insights to enhance the energy efficiency of wind-assisted ships.

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    Vertical Anti-pullout Capacity of Consolidated Pile-type Caissons in Cohesive Seabed
    PAN Wenhao, YANG Xinzhu, ZHANG Minxi, YU Guoliang
    2024, 11 (1):  10-17. 
    Abstract ( 16 )   PDF (9227KB) ( 6 )  
    With development of marine engineering in large-scale and deep-water, it is necessity to develop new techniques for underwater foundation constructions. This article introduces a consolidated pile-type caisson, which combines suction caisson and marine consolidation anchor technology. The caisson's structure and operational principles is introduced. A series lab tests are conducted for its characteristics of vertical pull-out forces. The experiments demonstrate that the caisson's shear area is significantly increased by the secondary consolidated body and then significantly enhances the anti-pullout capacity compared to conventional suction caissons. The recommended caisson fill volume is 1/20 of Ms, where Ms represents the mass of soil that grout-in the pile. The maximum anti-pullout force of coarser caissons occurs when the length of the pile is 1.5H (H is the height of the caisson), while for slender caissons, the maximum anti-pullout force occurs within the 1.5H—2H of the pile length. The consolidated pile-type caisson processing higher holding capacity to its weight higher than traditional caisson and easy construction would have promising potential engineering applications.

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    New Breakthrough in USV Warfare Mode in the Russo-Ukrainian Conflict
    HU Zhihuan, XIE Wei, LIU Ruonan, ZHANG Weidong
    2024, 11 (1):  18-22. 
    Abstract ( 15 )   PDF (698KB) ( 12 )  
    In recent years, with the rapid development of technology, the application of USV technology in the military field has gradually become one of the focuses of international military competition. In the Russo Ukrainian War, the USV maritime combat mode has shown new breakthroughs, providing new ideas and possibilities for future maritime operations. This article explores the application value, technical characteristics, and future development trends of unmanned vessels in maritime operations during the Russo Ukrainian War through practical case analysis. The aim is to provide reference and inspiration for research and practice in related fields.

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    Evaluation of the Ultimate Strength of Suspension Chains under Wear Conditions
    HE Wenxuan, YE Maosheng, ZHANG Yu, ZHANG Yatai, DAI Xiaohui, ZHANG Qi
    2024, 11 (1):  23-29. 
    Abstract ( 11 )   PDF (13986KB) ( 3 )  
    Using ANSYS finite element analysis software, a numerical simulation study was conducted to investigate the ultimate strength change of suspension chains due to wear under marine environment. Firstly, a finite element model is created to identify critical areas of a suspension chain under tensile load. Subsequently, applying the Archard wear theory, wear volumes are accumulated at 5 levels (1/2/3/4/5 mm) to determine the wear rate at different levels.Finally, the suspension chains breaking force is calculated using a failure criterion. The relationship between allowable breaking force and accumulated use time, accounting for wear, is established through the mapping of wear speed, wear amount, and breaking force. Based on the above numerical simulation method, the ultimate strength assessment and online life prediction of suspension chain under typical working conditions can be realized, which provides some theoretical basis for the prevention of suspension chain failure in advance.
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    Study on Influences of Tubular Joint Flexibility Theory on Offshore Jacket Platform Global Strength Analysis
    ZHANG Xiangyue, ZHAO Baoxiang, CHEN Li, LIU Xianyu, YI Difei, FENG Meng, CHEN Tushun, ZHANG Quan
    2024, 11 (1):  30-36. 
    Abstract ( 8 )   PDF (13319KB) ( 7 )  
    This paper studies the joint flexibility on offshore jacket platform, to figure out its effect on structure internal forces and deflection, which results in changes of stiffness and strength of members. By application of three classic joint flexibility theory and rigid theory on typical jacket platform in the South China Sea, the result of structural strength, fatigue life and ultimate strength have been compared. It comes to the general conclusion on influences of tubular joint flexibility on jacket structure.
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    Research on Testing Technology of Deep Water Jacket Pile Gripper for Oil and Gas Applications
    MA Deqiang, LI Nan, WANG Wei, MA Jianqiang, HUA Dongyang
    2024, 11 (1):  37-41. 
    Abstract ( 8 )   PDF (3134KB) ( 3 )  
    The jacket pile gripper is a key equipment for the installation of offshore jacket platforms. It is installed on top of the jacket skirt pile sleeve. During operation, the hydraulic cylinder is driven to clamp the steel pile to ensure the relative fixation between the steel pile and the jacket. If the gripper fails during the installation process of the jacket platform, it will seriously affect the entire offshore installation plan and cause huge economic losses. Therefore, in order to ensure the product quality of the gripper, it is necessary to conduct factory testing of key components of the gripper on land, factory testing after final assembly, and system testing after installation on the jacket platform to verify the functional integrity of the pile clamp.
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    The Key Technology Research and Application of Subsea Manifold and Foundation
    LIU Hao, ZHANG Ning, YUAN Qingdong, MAO Jiayou
    2024, 11 (1):  42-48. 
    Abstract ( 3 )   PDF (21580KB) ( 8 )  
    Subsea manifold is the core facility for subsea oil and gas fields development, is capable of gothering, tegulating, and ensurity underwater oil and gas production. It can be designed with different struture and function according the specific requirement of the oil and gas field. Base on the subsea manifold engineering experience in the South China Sea deepwater oil field, performing foundation type, key technology, manifold function module type and new technology application are analysised and researched. This study offers reference and experience for domestic subsea manifold technology and key equipment development.

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    Numerical Evaluation and Experimental Study on Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Subsea Super Duplex Stainless Steel Component
    CAO Yong, JIANG Ying, XU Xiangjuan, QIAN Sicheng
    2024, 11 (1):  49-53. 
    Abstract ( 7 )   PDF (15397KB) ( 3 )  
    Subsea production system has been widely used in offshore oil development in China. It usually uses composite electro-hydraulic method to remotely control subsea equipment. The control line uses super duplex stainless steel material, but this material has the risk of cracking caused by hydrogen in the subsea cathodic protection system. According to the corresponding foreign norms, the evaluation process of HISC of subsea super duplex stainless steel component was established, the finite element evaluation technology was elaborated. The modeling method, the method of result extraction, and the result checking were given. The calculation and analysis were combined with the practical project examples. Also, the applicable environmental parameters and hydrogen induced cracking test of evaluation technology are studied and elaborated.

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    Application Practice of Dynamic Positioning Ship in Mooring Leg Pre-laying in Ultra Deep Water
    LI Shujun, SONG Jinpeng
    2024, 11 (1):  54-58. 
    Abstract ( 5 )   PDF (20343KB) ( 3 )  
    The offshore floating production facilities usually use multiple mooring legs to connect the upper platform facilities with the seabed anchor piles. The water depth of more than 1500 meters will bring unprecedented challenges and difficulties to the mooring leg pre-laying work. In this paper, based on the engineering practice of the semi-submersible platform mooring leg pre-laying work in the west of the South China Sea, the mooring legs are lowered by the method of dynamic positioning system, active heave compensation offshore crane and 500 ton anchor handling winch. Based on the connection between the anchor head chain and the anchor pile, the placement of polyester cables in the middle section of the mooring legs, and the wet storage of the mooring legs, this paper conducts a thorough analysis and summary of the key points and difficulties in the construction of anchoring handling vessels.
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    Investigation on the Influence of Anchor Chain Length and Weight on the Motion Response of Floating Wind Turbine Platforms
    SUN Xiang, TIAN Zhenya, ZHU Ronghua
    2024, 11 (1):  59-64. 
    Abstract ( 7 )   PDF (3492KB) ( 14 )  
    Based on an actual engineering project involving a floating scale prototype, this article employs a timedomain analysis method to numerically simulate the transient response of a semi-submersible floating wind turbine platform. It extensively investigates the influence of varying anchor chain length and counterweight mass on the pre-tension of the mooring system and the motion response of the floating platform. The results indicate that the amplitude of pitch, heave, and surge responses of the floating platform initially increases and then decreases with an increase in mooring length. Increasing the mass of the counterweight leads to an initial increase and subsequent decrease in pitch and heave responses, while the surge response initially decreases and then increases. When simultaneously changing both the mooring length and counterweight mass, the counterweight mass does not affect the variation pattern of platform motion response caused by mooring length.

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    Application of Stability Control Device in Offshore Oil Platform Power Grid
    WANG Jing, WANG Wei, WANG Aiwu
    2024, 11 (1):  65-69. 
    Abstract ( 6 )   PDF (1253KB) ( 3 )  
    The stability control device adopts advanced platform based design concepts and provides standard model services for applications through hardware and software modular design. The stability control device is a control device installed in power plants or substations to ensure the stability of the power system when encountering large disturbances in the land power grid. It achieves functions such as machine cutting, load cutting, and rapid output reduction according to standardized strategies. This article studies the standard services of domestic power grid stability control devices, develops stability control strategies suitable for offshore platform power station management, completes the intelligent strategy and functional research and development of stability control devices, configures stability control master and slave machines according to on-site strategy requirements, and develops control and disposal strategies and intelligent requirements suitable for on-site working conditions.

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    Optimization Design of Marine cable of Wind Farm Bend Restrictor Based on Neural Network
    ZHONG Kexing, DING Lesheng, ZHANG Cong, MAO Yandong, CHEN Jinlong
    2024, 11 (1):  70-76. 
    Abstract ( 6 )   PDF (10138KB) ( 3 )  
    China's offshore wind power generation enter the era of affordable grid connection, and all component designs in the industry face the challenge of optimizing design. Bend restrictors are widely used in wind cable protection, and their bending stiffness and Mises peak stress are key indicators in structural design. At present, the optimization design of bend restrictors is mostly based on experience and finite element analysis iteration, which has low efficiency and is difficult to achieve multiobjective optimization. The paper proposes a multi-objective optimization method based on neural networks for the optimization of marine cable of wind farm bend restrictors to address this issue. Firstly, construct an RBF neural network proxy model using samples obtained from orthogonal experimental design and finite element analysis within the given design domain. Furthermore, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm Ⅱ (NSGA-Ⅱ) is used for multi-objective optimization of the bend restrictor, and the Pareto optimal solution set is obtained. A feasible multi-objective optimization method is provided for the structural design of the bend restrictor.
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    Analysis of Airborne Sonobuoy Self-noise
    HAN Yun, ZHAO Xinfang, MA Yongben
    2024, 11 (1):  77-81. 
    Abstract ( 7 )   PDF (1320KB) ( 4 )  
    The influence of the self-noise of aeronautical sonobuoy on its detection performance are mainly analyzed in this paper. The types of sonobuoy self-noise are introduced in general and the estimation method of sonobuoy self-noise is given. The influence of self-noise on the signal-to-noise ratio of the acoustic signal collected by the buoy and the action distance of the buoy is analyzed quantitatively. The design methods and self-noise level of foreign sonobuoys for different noise sources are summarized. The analysis shows that the self-noise control of sonobuoy directly affects its detection performance, which is the key to buoy design. In engineering, necessary noise reduction measures should be taken to deal with different noise sources.
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    Structural Finite Element Analysis Study of Underwater Automatic Matress Release System for Oil and Gas Pipeline Protection Structures
    CHEN Yi, JIANG Zhe, ZHANG Jinfei, LUO Gaosheng, WANG Huanhuan, CHEN Zhaohui
    2024, 11 (1):  82-89. 
    Abstract ( 3 )   PDF (16286KB) ( 4 )  
    Underwater pipes and pipelines are laid on the seabed for a long period of time, including pipelines and cables on the seabed. The seabed is subject to currents, tides and waves, which bring silt, sand and gravel, changing the geomorphology of the seabed and the morphology of the seabed around the pipelines. These changes and deposits cause damage to submarine pipelines and cables. To minimize these damages, the placement of new polymer composite protective mats is often used to cover structures such as submarine pipes and cables. In this study, a novel underwater placement device is proposed, for which full system design, system development and testing have been carried out with the aim of solving the problems of high cost, low efficiency and poor economic efficiency of the existing repair methods. In this paper, the static analysis of the model is carried out by using NX Nastran solver,  after the finite element static analysis by NX Nastran solver. The results of the frame structure calculation of the deployment device are then postprocessed and analyzed by Femap software to study the two working conditions of the underwater operation and surface deployment. The results show that the deployment device meets the structural design requirements, and also provides important data for optimizing the structure of the device.

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    Current Status and Key of Undersea Junction Technology at Home and Abroad
    CHEN Yunlong, DENG Dudu, LIU Zhijian, RUAN Hailong, LIANG Tao, LIU Guangzhi, GUO Longchuan
    2024, 11 (1):  90-98. 
    Abstract ( 6 )   PDF (45240KB) ( 10 )  
    Undersea junction technology is one of the core technologies for building a cabled ocean observatory system, which connects multiple devices underwater to manage the power and information. The undersea junction technology started earlier in United States, Japan, Canada and other country, which gradually developed negative high-voltage single-stage DC power transmission, high-power power conversion, underwater wet plug, large-scale optical fiber communication networking and other technologies. Using modular design and multi-level junction box interconnection, large subsea observatory has been built in many sea areas. In the past decade, with the domestic development of offshore ocean observation system, junction box design and high voltage power transmission, remote communication and control technology has developed rapidly, the scientific nodes undersea junction boxes have been successfully applied in a number of sea areas, but has not yet formed a large observatory. Some of the deepwater key components such as underwater wet plug connectors, cables are mainly dependent on imports. While introducing and absorbing foreign advanced technology, the development of high-performance controllers, high-power conversion modules, underwater connectors and photoelectric complex cables will be a very important direction of the future junction boxes.

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    Numerical Analysis of J-Lay on a Nonlinear Seabed
    SHANG Xianling, LI Chunlei, WANG Leqin, FAN Zeren, HAN Yunrui, YU Long
    2024, 11 (1):  99-105. 
    Abstract ( 7 )   PDF (2116KB) ( 3 )  
    With the continuous global demand for energy, offshore oil and gas production is gradually expanding into deep and ultra-deep water areas. In this application context, the J-lay system demonstrates inherent adaptability in deepwater regions. This study develops a numerical simulation method for the J-lay technique based on the Winkler and macro-element models. The method utilizes finite difference methods to simulate its mechanical characteristics under nonlinear seabed conditions accurately. Feasibility is validated through a comparison with analytical solutions and model experiments. The research explores the impact of varying water depths and laying angles, revealing that increased water depth results in reduced burial depth and soil resistance near the pipeline touchdown point. Additionally, changes in laying angles affect the pipeline's bending moment and soil resistance. These findings provide valuable theoretical support and references for the practical application of the J-lay laying technique in deepwater engineering.

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    Adaptability Analysis of Offshore New Energy Storage Technology Under Dual-carbon Background
    SHEN Qi, LI Ouping, LIU Chao, CHENG Guangyuan, YU Xichong
    2024, 11 (1):  106-115. 
    Abstract ( 10 )   PDF (1237KB) ( 8 )  
    This paper sorts out relevant engineering cases at home and abroad, analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of physical energy storage and electrochemical energy storage in offshore applications based on three scenarios: the mandatory requirement of energy storage systems policy for large-scale offshore wind farms, energy storage for improving the penetration of offshore wind power into the grid for integrated development of offshore oil and gas and new energy, and energy storage for off-grid production of green hydrogen, green ammonia, and green methanol. Considering the technology maturity, safety, reliability, compactness, lightweight, economy, and other factors, the most suitable energy storage applied offshorely is still the LFP battery. In the future, considering the superiority of lithium titanate oxide (LTO) batteries in terms of safety, after the cost is reduced, the choice of LTO battery could be considered. But due to the low density of LTO battery, the volume and quality of the equipment are larger than that of LFP battery, and the layout of the offshore platform needs to be further considered. In addition, because there is no single energy storage system that can simultaneously have the characteristics of high power, large energy storage density, reliable safety, and long life cycle, the use of “flywheel+” and “supercapacitor+”hybrid energy storage system is considered, to maximize the shortcomings of a single energy storage method to make up for, to obtain a better performance of the energy storage system. In order to ensure the safety and reliability of new energy storage engineering applications at sea, it is suggested that further research and engineering application of technologies such as the intrinsic safety, safety monitoring and early warning of energy storage under the anti-sloshing conditions of floating facilities at sea should be carried out.
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    Techno-economic Evaluation of Hydrogen Production through Offshore Wind Farms
    LIU Chao, LI Ouping, CHENG Guangyuan, SHEN Qi, YU Xichong
    2024, 11 (1):  116-121. 
    Abstract ( 22 )   PDF (823KB) ( 8 )  
    Offshore wind resources in deep-water is more abundant and will be one of the main development trends in the next few years. However, offshore wind development faces many challenges such as the power transmission and consumption. It needs new development models and technological innovations to be promoted. Hydrogen production through offshore wind would improve the power system flexibility and safety, and could be used as renewable energy storage to achieve large-scale and long-term storage. Based on the market price and literature, the tech-economic comparison and evaluation are carried of onshore off-grid hydrogen production and offshore hydrogen production with pipeline from the levelized cost of hydrogen and internal rate of return. Based on the whole life cost, the levelized cost of hydrogen production through offshore with pipeline is lower and the CAPEX and OPEX of water electrolysis system have a significant impact on the LCOH. In terms of economy, offshore wind will obtain higher returns than offshore hydrogen production if all electricity could be imported to the power system.
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    Steel Lazy-wave Riser Installation Method Analysis
    TIAN Zhen, LEI Zhenming, CHEN Ye, HE Jianwen, LIU Song, ZHONG Yang
    2024, 11 (1):  122-129. 
    Abstract ( 6 )   PDF (16905KB) ( 9 )  
    Standard steel catenary riser form is vulnerable to yielding and fatigue damages at the touch down point (TDP) location in the ultra-deepwater environment. Steel lazy-wave riser (SLWR) introduces a buoyancy section into the standard riser form, which can reduce the stress near the hang-off region, and at the same time isolate the dynamic response of the floating platform from TDP region, so as to improve the fatigue life of riser. SLWR installations are analyzed and compared among S-LAY, J-LAY and R-LAY methods, based on a potential ultra-deepwater project in Gabon. The results show that for the riser without buoyancy section, all three laying methods have sufficient layability, and S-LAY is not feasible for laying the 12" SLWR buoyancy section limited by the capacity of HYSY201; J-LAY and R-LAY are found to be more appropriate for both normal laying and buoyancy section laying of 12" SLWR in 2100m water depth. In general, empty pipe condition is better than the flooded condition in terms of layability regardless of laying methods. The feasibility of SLWR laying by S-LAY method can be improved by reducing water depth, pipe size and optimizing buoyancy module design. For J-LAY and R-LAY installation methods, if pipe catenary with buoyancy module section in empty pipe condition has no interference with lay tower and vessel, SLWR can be laid in empty pipe condition.

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    Development of Mooring Connectors and its Application in Floating Offshore Wind Turbine
    DONG Xin, XU Qun, SHAO Yunliang
    2024, 11 (1):  130-138. 
    Abstract ( 4 )   PDF (4193KB) ( 8 )  
    As a key part of position mooring system, connectors have been widely used for the joining of mooring lines with floating structures or different mooring components. Recently, with the development of floating offshore wind, multiple demonstration projects have been reported worldwide and large scale projects are under planning. The cost must be controlled for the floating wind to realize commercialization by technological innovation, including the mooring system. The mooring connectors have been utilized and verified in the offshore industry for the last several decades and played an important role in connection, installation, maintenance and replacement of mooring system. With the development and flexible application of the mooring connectors, the design, fabrication and installation of floating wind turbine could be significantly improved and the cost of floating wind will be effectively reduced. 
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    Discussion on the Application of Deformation Control Technology of Large-diameter Steel Pipes for Offshore Wind Power Generation
    YE Xi
    2024, 11 (1):  139-144. 
    Abstract ( 3 )   PDF (13491KB) ( 9 )  
     Large-diameter steel pipes for offshore wind power generation will have multiple deformation problems in construction. The deformation area must be strictly controlled, and targeted technical measures must be adopted to maximize the quality of steel pipes and avoid a series of problems caused by scrapping or failure to deliver materials. The deformation control of large-diameter steel pipes should consider a complete set of planning paths, and a very comprehensive technical control should be done in each link of manufacturing, transportation and storage, so as to avoid large deformation production problems in one of the links. It is an important prerequisite to form a process plan, reduce costs and control the construction quality by paying attention to the trend of controlling its deformation, fully considering the equipment capacity and production capacity, selecting the technological means that can maximize the quality and highest efficiency of steel pipe construction, improving the construction level and ensuring the effective control of its deformation. Based on this, this paper discusses and analyzes the application of construction technology for steel pipe deformation control for reference.
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    Application Status of Joining Technology for Composites in the Ship Field
    ZHANG Xiaoyu, ZHOU Yiliang, FENG Chong, YAO Lili
    2024, 11 (1):  145-150. 
    Abstract ( 3 )   PDF (7989KB) ( 3 )  
    Fiber-reinforced composites have been widely applicated in the ship fields owing to their characteristics of light weight and high strength. Although the integral forming process is becoming mature, the assembly and joint of the composites is still a challenge. Therefore, improving the mechanical properties of joint is the key to the application of fiber-reinforced composites. This paper introduces the normal joining technology, including mechanical , adhesive and hybrid joints, which also briefly describes the key points during designing the joint. Finally, the future application of joining technology for fiber-reinforced composites in the ship fields is summarized and prospected.
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    Application of Self Installed Wellhead Platform in the Development of Marginal Oil Fields in the South China Sea
    TANG Qianyu, WANG Wenlong, ZHANG Xiulin, JING Yuanbin, LUO Zhenqin, JU Peng
    2024, 11 (1):  151-158. 
    Abstract ( 6 )   PDF (19212KB) ( 4 )  
    The self installed wellhead platform is characterized by pile legs with free lifting, which are towed by tugboats to the production site for pile production. After the end of the oilfield development lifecycle, piles can be pulled out and floated, and then towed by tugboats to the new oilfield for continued service. Compared to fixed jacket platforms, it can significantly reduce the cost of platform installation and disposal. The self installed wellhead platform has been applied in the development of Bohai Oilfield for many years, and it is the first time in the South China Sea. This article introduces that in order to overcome the extreme working conditions of typhoons in the South China Sea, it is necessary to solve many problems such as the stability of the platform in place, longdistance transportation of the platform, and fatigue resistance of the connection between the platform and the subsea pipeline and wellhead.

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    Key Influencing Factors Analysis of Satellite Well Tieback Plan for Subsea Oil and Gas Fields
    MENG Yao, WEI Juan
    2024, 11 (1):  159-163. 
    Abstract ( 4 )   PDF (2127KB) ( 3 )  
    With the increasingly discover of subsea oil and gas resources and the increasingly mature technology of subsea production systems, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) is rationally promoting development of newly discovered oil and gas field as well as the marginal oil and gas fields. It is very important to make sure the development design is technically feasible and the economic benefits which will determine whether the project could be implemented. Satellite well tieback to the original production system is cost saving plan for newly discovered oil and gas field. This paper studies the possible tieback scenarios and the key factors which will affect the feasibility of satellite well tieback. Solutions and suggestions are provide for future tieback project as reference.

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